Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is associated with vasculitic neuropathy and being rare can present as subacute symmetric sensorimotor quadriparesis mimicking Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS). It warrants timely diagnosis as treatment for both conditions is different and vasculitic neuropathy needs long-term immunosuppression. Nerve biopsy of our patient showed eosinophilic infiltration along with mononuclear infiltrate. Typical histopathological presentations of EGPA are different among different organs and eosinophilic infiltration is rarely observed in peripheral nerve and kidney involvements.
A 49-year-old female with a history of asthma with 3-week duration of acute onset ascending weakness, preceded by severe pain and burning in glove and stocking pattern. Nerve conduction studies could not rule out Guillain–Barre syndrome initially, but subsequent studies show axonal affection and she received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) but her weakness progressed after slight improvement. Her bloodwork revealed marked eosinophilia (> 50%) with computed tomography (CT) paranasal sinuses showing pansinusitis with background history of asthma led us towards eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis and later antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies came out positive with nerve biopsy showing perivascular mononuclear inflammation with eosinophils. She was started on steroids immediately and then received intravenous rituximab in view of long-term immunosuppression with maintenance steroids and on follow-up she improved.
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a small-vessel vasculitis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies with significant paranasal sinuses involvement. Mononeuritis multiplex is the most common presentation of vasculitic neuropathy of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, but they can mimic Guillain–Barre syndrome and should always be considered in the differential diagnosis, since the treatment strategies for these conditions are radically different.