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Depression, sexual dysfunction, life satisfaction and marriage satisfaction in women with multiple sclerosis

Abstract

Background

Marriage satisfaction is one of the factors that affects life satisfaction in healthy people and patients. In the current literature, it is found there is a positive correlation between marriage and life satisfaction. Many factors such as sexual dysfunction, depression and neurological disorders affect negatively marriage and life satisfactions. However, there is not enough research dealing with how multiple sclerosis (MS) affects women's marital and life satisfaction. This study aimed to examine marital satisfaction and life satisfaction of female patients with MS (pwMS) in relation to sexual dysfunction and depression. A total of 139 married women (MS Group: 81, Control Group: 58) were recruited in the study. Then both groups’ participants were requested to fill the relevant documentary; Demographic Information Form, Marital Life Scale (MLS), Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS), Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).

Results

Regarding the percentages of the relevant parameters; it was examined that 60.96% of pwMS and 62.07% of control group have depression, respectively. In addition, 89.16% of pwMS and 86.21% of control group have sexual dysfunction, respectively. Furthermore, 55.52% of pwMS and 44.83% of control group have high life satisfaction, whereas 60.24% of pwMS and 56.90% of control group have high marriage satisfaction, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between marriage satisfaction and life satisfaction (p < 0.001) and there was a weak negative correlation between marriage satisfaction and sexual dysfunction (p < 0.001). In addition, there were weak negative correlations between marriage satisfaction and depression level (p < 0.001) and between life satisfaction and sexual dysfunction (p < 0.001), respectively. Similarly, there was a weak negative correlation between life satisfaction and depression level (p < 0.001), whereas there was a weak positive correlation between depression level and sexual dysfunction (p < 0.001). Finally, while there was no significant difference in the marriage satisfaction and sexual dysfunction between the groups in points of life satisfaction and depression level (p > 0.05).

Conclusion

Sexual dysfunction and depression are important problems that affect women’s marriage and life satisfaction. Sexual dysfunction is a common problem for women, regardless of MS.

Background

There are many determinants of life satisfaction such as income, health status, and social factors. Marriage is also one of them [1]. The current literature shows that people with high marriage satisfaction have also high life satisfaction [2]. Health status also affects marriage satisfaction, especially in neurological disorders [3].

Multiple sclerosis is one of these neurological disorders that demyelination and axonal loss are seen and its prevalence is higher in female than male [4]. Patients with MS (pwMS) have comorbidities such as depression, anxiety disorder, and sexual dysfunction. Prevalence of depression and anxiety in pwMS has increased compared to general population [5, 6] and this situation caused diminished quality of life [7]. In addition, 40–80% of pwMS has sexual dysfunction. For female pwMS, sexual dysfunction is a severe problem and it caused decreased quality of life and poor personal relationship [8].

MS can affect marriage satisfaction, negatively [9]. PwMS can have low or moderate level of marriage satisfaction [10, 11]. In addition, it is known that depression, anxiety disorder, and sexual dysfunction negatively affect people’s marriage and life satisfaction [12,13,14,15]. They also affect the marriage and life satisfaction of pwMS. In previous research, it is found that pwMS have low marriage satisfaction and life satisfaction [5].

Aim of the work

The aim of the work was to examine marital satisfaction and life satisfaction of female pwMS in relation to sexual dysfunction and depression.

Methods

This study was conducted with 139 married women (MS Group: 81, Control group: 58). The sample size was calculated by power analysis in 0.80 the confidence level and 95% confidence interval. Demographic Information Form, Marital Life Scale (MLS), Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS), Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to collect data. Women who diagnosed with MS, aged 18–65, and be a volunteer were recruited. Those who did not meet these criteria were not included in the study.

Concerning the statistical approach, according to the skewness and kurtosis results, the data showed normal distribution. In order to find correlation among scales, Pearson’s correlation was done, whereas independent sample T-test was performed to compare the groups.

Marital life scale (MLS)

The scale is used to measure the general satisfaction level of the spouses from the marital relationship. It consists of 10 questions. It is a 5-point Likert-type scale. The lowest score is 10 and the highest score is 50 from the test. The cut-off point is determined by the mean of the group which is developed by E. Tezer [16].

Life satisfaction scale (LSS)

Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin developed this scale. Dağlı and Baysal have done the validity and reliability studies of the Turkish version. It consists of 5 questions. It is a 5-point Likert-type scale. The cut-off point is determined by the mean of the group [17].

Arizona sexual experiences scale (ASEX)

The scale is used to examine the basic elements of sexual functioning. It consists of 5 questions. It is a 6-point Likert-type scale. Scores of 11 and above indicate sexual dysfunction. Soykan adapted the scale to the Turkish version in 2004 [18].

Beck depression inventory (BDI)

The scale consists of 21 questions. It is scored between 0–3. 0 is the lowest score and 63 is the highest score that can be obtained from the scale. The scores between 0–9 is show minimal depression, 10–16 show mild depression, 17–29 show moderate depression and 30–63 show severe depression. Hisli adapted the scale to the Turkish version [19].

Results

A total of 139 married women (MS Group: 81, Control group: 58) were recruited in the study. Demographic data (Table 1), frequency of the scales (Table 2), and the descriptive statistics (Table 3) were obtained. Pearson’s correlation results and the independent sample T-test results are given as Table 4 and Tables 5, 6, respectively.

Table 1 Demographic characteristics of participants
Table 2 Frequency result of scales
Table 3 Descriptive statistics of scales
Table 4 Correlations among scales
Table 5 Group statistics for ASEX, BDI, MLS, LSS
Table 6 Independent samples test for ASEX

There was a strong positive correlation between marriage satisfaction and life satisfaction r = 0.62 (p < 0.001). While there were weak negative correlations between marriage satisfaction and sexual dysfunction r = − 0.32 (p < 0.001) and between marriage satisfaction and depression level = − 0.44 (p < 0.001). Similarly, there were weak negative correlations between life satisfaction and sexual dysfunction r = − 0.34 (p < 0.001) and between life satisfaction and depression level r = − 0.50 (p < 0.001). Contrarily, there was a weak positive correlation between depression level and sexual dysfunction r = 0.27 (p < 0.001) (Table 3).

No significant difference was found between MS group (M = 38.42, SD = 10.21) and Control group (M = 37.38, SD = 8.53), M = 1.040, 95% Cl [− 2.21, 4.29], t (137) = 0.634, p > 0.05 in terms of marriage satisfaction. Life satisfaction of MS group (M = 17.10, SD = 5.46) was greater than Control group (M = 15.97, SD = 4.46), M = 1.13, 95% Cl [− 0.59, 2.86], t (137) = 1.30, p < 0.001. There was no significant difference between MS group (M = 16.44, SD = 6.10) and Control group (M = 15.72, SD = 5.30), M = 0.720, 95% Cl [− 1.25, 2.69], t (137) = 0.724, p > 0.05, in point of sexual dysfunction. Depression level of MS group (M = 15.84, SD = 12.17) was greater than Control group (M = 13.31, SD = 8.41), M = 2.53, 95% Cl [− 1.13, 6.19], t (137) = 1.37, p < 0.001.

Discussion

This research was conducted with 139 married women (MS Group: 81, Control group: 58). The main results of the study are that while there is no significant difference in sexual dysfunction and marriage satisfaction between married women with MS and control, there is a significant difference between depression level and life satisfaction between the groups. As a result of the correlational analysis, we found that there was a strong positive correlation between marriage satisfaction and life satisfaction; and also a weak positive correlation between depression level and sexual dysfunction. Further, there was a weak negative correlation between marriage satisfaction and sexual dysfunction–depression level; and also between life satisfaction and sexual dysfunction–depression level.

Marriage satisfaction and life satisfaction play important roles in human well-being [20, 21]. The relationship between them is being investigated. Current literature has shown that there is a strong relation between marriage satisfaction and life satisfaction [22, 23]. In our previous research, we found that this relation is also seen in pwMS [5]. The result of this study is in line with our previous study.

Many factors affect marriage satisfaction. Sexual problems are one of them. Recently emerging literature has revealed that sexual problems negatively affect marriage satisfaction in both healthy women and healthy men all over the world [24,25,26]. Also, it affects the marriage satisfaction of people who has a neurological disorder such as MS [5] and Parkinson’s disease [27]. We found that there is a negative correlation between marriage satisfaction and sexual dysfunction as in previous research.

When the difference between groups in this study is examined, we found that there is no significant difference in sexual dysfunction and marriage satisfaction between married women with MS and healthy participants. In contrary, researchers [28] found that patients with MS have low marriage satisfaction and high sexual dysfunction than control groups. Other researchers found that both female and male pwMS have low marriage satisfaction than the control groups [10] and have high sexual dysfunction than control groups [29]. As pwMS, sexual problems are high among women all over the world [29, 30].

Regarding the depression, there is much research manifesting there is a negative relationship between depression and marriage satisfaction [13, 31]. When this situation is examined for MS patients, in our previous research, we found that there is a negative relationship between depression and marriage satisfaction in pwMS [5]. The result of this research is in harmony with our previous research.

When the difference between the groups in this study is examined, we found that the MS group has a higher depression level than the control group. The current literature showed that depression in MS is seen generally higher than those of the general population [32] and other chronic diseases [33]. Researchers [10] found both female and male pwMS have higher depression levels than the control group. Our result is coherent with the current literature.

As we mentioned above, life satisfaction is an important factor for human health. It is known that MS negatively affects the quality of life of patients [5, 34, 35]. When compared to healthy people, pwMS have a low quality of life [36, 37]. However, in this research, we found that pwMS have high life satisfaction than the control group. The emergence of this situation can be explained by their tendency to look at life more positively depending on the disease.

Many factors affect the quality of life in pwMS. In this research, we focus on two of them: sexual dysfunction and depression. We found that there is a weak negative relationship between life satisfaction and sexual dysfunction–depression level. Researchers [38, 39] found that women with MS have low life satisfaction in relation to sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, it was also indicated in the literature that there is a negative correlation between life satisfaction and depression [40, 41] in addition to, a weak negative relationship between life satisfaction and sexual dysfunction–depression level in MS patients [5, 31]. We can say that our results are in line with the current literature. Lastly, we found that there is a weak positive relationship between depression and sexual dysfunction between the groups. In the current literature, many studies support this result [42,43,44,45].

Unfortunately, the medical data about the duration of illness of MS, number of relapses and drug treatment were not collected in the study. Hence, the relationship among the medical data, marriage satisfaction and life satisfaction is unknown. This is the limitation of our study.

Conclusions

In the presence of sexual dysfunction and depression, both women with MS and healthy women have low marriage satisfaction and life satisfaction. More comprehensive studies are needed to find the causes of these problems and to develop new treatment methods.

Availability of data and materials

Not applicable.

Abbreviations

MS:

Multiple sclerosis

pwMS:

Patients with multiple sclerosis

MLS:

Marital Life Scale

LSS:

Life Satisfaction Scale

ASEX:

Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale

BDI:

Beck Depression Inventory

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Acknowledgements

We thank to Prof. Dr. Murat Terzi for help in reaching participants.

Funding

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

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Contributions

TA: data collection and/or processing, analysis and/or interpretation, literature review, writer, critical review. MEO: conception, design, supervision, analysis and/or interpretation, writer, critical review. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mehmet Emin Onger.

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Ethical approval was granted by Ondokuz Mayıs University Clinical Research Ethics Committee (OMU KAEK 2019/363) on May 29, 2019 (B.30.2.ODM.0.20.08/394-474). Written informed consent was obtained from all participants.

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Aydın, T., Onger, M.E. Depression, sexual dysfunction, life satisfaction and marriage satisfaction in women with multiple sclerosis. Egypt J Neurol Psychiatry Neurosurg 58, 73 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41983-022-00501-w

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Keywords

  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Marriage satisfaction
  • Life satisfaction
  • Depression
  • Sexual dysfunction