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Table 5 Association between common adverse childhood experiences and characteristics of the studied patients

From: Prevalence and clinical implication of adverse childhood experiences and their association with substance use disorder among patients with schizophrenia

Variables Mother and/or household member treated violently Emotional neglect Physical abuse Contact sexual abuse
Gender     
 Males (n = 132) 71 (53.8%) 54 (40.9%) 36 (27.3%) 18 (13.6%)
 Females (n = 33) 29 (87.9%) 12 (36.4%) 6 (18.2%) 19 (57.6%)
 P-value  < 0.001* 0.6 0.3  < 0.001*
Marital status     
 Single (n = 82) 44 (53.7%) 29 (35.4%) 12 (14.6%) 22 (26.8%)
 Married (n = 52) 32 (61.5%) 22 (42.3%) 12 (23.1%) 8 (15.4%)
 Divorced (n = 25) 18 (72.0%) 11 (44.0%) 18 (72.0%) 6 (24.0%)
 Widowed (n = 6) 6 (100%) 4 (66.7%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (16.7%)
 P-value 0.07 0.4  < 0.001* 0.5
Education     
 Low education (n = 23) 17 (73.9%) 19 (82.6%) 14 (60.9%) 9 (39.1%)
 Preparatory education (n = 33) 24 (72.7%) 25 (75.8%) 21 (63.6%) 14 (42.4%)
 Secondary education (n = 58) 41 (70.7%) 20 (34.5%) 5 (8.6%) 8 (13.8%)
 High education (n = 51) 18 (35.3%) 2 (3.9%) 2 (3.9%) 6 (11.8%)
P-value  < 0.001*  < 0.001*  < 0.001*  < 0.001*
 Occupation     
 Working (n = 36) 18 (50.0%) 15 (41.7%) 9 (25.0%) 9 (25.0%)
 Not working (n = 129) 82 (63.6%) 51 (39.5%) 33 (25.6%) 28 (21.7%)
 P-value 0.1 0.8 0.9 0.7
Residence     
 Urban (n = 48) 8 (21.1%) 14 (29.2%) 7 (14.6%) 4 (8.3%)
 Rural (n = 117) 92 (78.6%) 52 (44.4%) 35 (29.9%) 33 (28.2%)
 P-value  < 0.001* 0.07 0.04* 0.005*
Socio-economic level     
 Low (n = 74) 57 (77.0%) 43 (58.1%) 21 (28.4%) 23 (31.1%)
 Middle (n = 52) 32 (61.5%) 16 (30.8%) 11 (21.2%) 8 (15.4%)
 High (n = 39) 11 (28.2%) 7 (17.9%) 10 (25.6%) 6 (15.4%)
 P-value  < 0.001*  < 0.001* 0.07 0.05*
Lifetime substance use     
 Positive (n = 68) 51 (75.0%) 30 (44.1%) 34 (50.0%) 14 (20.6%)
 Negative (n = 97) 49 (50.5%) 36 (37.1%) 8 (8.3%) 23 (23.7%)
 P-value 0.002* 0.4  < 0.001* 0.6
Smoking status     
 Not smoker (n = 58) 12 (20.7%) 14 (24.1%) 16 (27.6%) 15 (25.9%)
 Ex-smoker (n = 17) 11 (64.7%) 10 (58.8%) 7 (41.2%) 6 (35.3%)
 Smoker (n = 90) 77 (85.6%) 42 (46.7%) 19 (21.1%) 16 (17.8%)
 P-value  < 0.001* 0.006* 0.2 0.2
Drug screen results     
 Positive (n = 30) 24 (80.0%) 19 (63.3%) 13 (43.3%) 11 (36.7%)
 Negative (n = 135) 76 (56.3%) 47 (34.8%) 29 (21.5%) 26 (19.3%)
 P-value 0.01* 0.003* 0.01* 0.03*
  1. *Statistically significant