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Table 1 Radkowski grading system

From: Multidisciplinary management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

Stage Ia

Limited to nasal cavity/nasopharynx

Stage Ib

Extension into one or more sinuses

Stage IIa

Minimal extension into pterygopalatine fossa via pterygomaxillary fissure

Stage IIb

Fills pterygomaxillary fossa, bowing the posterior wall of the maxillary antrum anteriorly or extending into the orbit via the inferior orbital fissure without orbital erosion

Stage IIc

Infratemporal fossa extension without cheek or pterygoid plate involvement

Stage IIIa

Erosion of skull base (middle cranial fossa or pterygoids) with minimal intracranial spread

Stage IIIb

Erosion of skull base with intracranial extension with or without cavernous sinus involvement