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Table 1 Radkowski grading system

From: Multidisciplinary management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

Stage Ia Limited to nasal cavity/nasopharynx
Stage Ib Extension into one or more sinuses
Stage IIa Minimal extension into pterygopalatine fossa via pterygomaxillary fissure
Stage IIb Fills pterygomaxillary fossa, bowing the posterior wall of the maxillary antrum anteriorly or extending into the orbit via the inferior orbital fissure without orbital erosion
Stage IIc Infratemporal fossa extension without cheek or pterygoid plate involvement
Stage IIIa Erosion of skull base (middle cranial fossa or pterygoids) with minimal intracranial spread
Stage IIIb Erosion of skull base with intracranial extension with or without cavernous sinus involvement