Skip to main content

Table 2 Clinical manifestations and radiological findings

From: Recurrent spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea: combined endo-nasal endoscopic repair with lumbo-peritoneal shunt insertion

Parameter Total number = 18
Headache 18 (100.0%)
Visual symptoms 18 (100.0%)
Past history of meningitis
No 16 (88.9%)
Yes 2 (11.1%)
Sites of leakage
 Cribriform/Ethmoidal 3 (16.7%)
 Cribriform 12 (66.7%)
 Ethmoidal 1 (5.6%)
 Sphenoid 2 (11.1%)
Defect size (mm)
 Mean ± SD 5.1 ± 1.1
 Range 3.0–7.0
Number of defects
 Single 12 (66.7%)
 Multiple 6 (33.3%)
Encephaloceles
 No 7 (38.9%)
 Yes 11 (61.1%)
Meningoceles
 No 6 (33.3%)
 Yes 12 (66.7%)
MRI findings
 Empty sella partialis 1 (5.6%)
 Empty sella totalis 12 (66.7%)
 Slit ventricle 5 (27.8%)
 Peri-optic CSF congestion 14 (77.7%)
Preoperative CSF pressure (mm H2O)
 Mean ± SD 36.5 ± 1.7
 Range 35.0–40.0
  1. SD standard deviation, CSF cerebrospinal fluid