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Table 1 Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 survivors and control subjects

From: Cognitive after-effects and associated correlates among post-illness COVID-19 survivors: a cross-sectional study, Egypt

Variable Cases (n = 85) Control (n=85) t P-value
Mean ± SD Mean ± SD
Age 35.95 ± 9.40 33.68 ± 9.37 1.58 0.117
  No % No % χ2  
Gender (female) 69 81.2 62 72.9 1.63 0.202
Marital status (married) 75 88.2 66 77.6 3.37 0.066
Residence (rural) 55 64.7 46 54.1 1.976 0.160
Level of education
 Low-to-moderate 53 62.4 48 56.5 0.61 0.435
 High 32 37.6 37 43.5   
Occupation
 Skilled 77 90.6 70 82.4 2.65 0.266
 Employee 7 8.2 12 14.1
 Unemployed 1 1.2 3 2.4
  Mean ± SD Mean ± SD MWU  
HADS scoring
 Depression 8.24 ± 4.21 6.62 ± 3.85 − 2.95 0.003
 Anxiety 8.15 ± 4.17 6.13 ± 3.37 − 3.33 0.001
    t  
Visuo/executive 3.98 ± 0.65 4.51 ± 0.61 − 5.46 < 0.001
Naming 2.93 ± 0.26 3.00 ± 0.01 − 2.53 0.012
Attention 5.29 ± 0.91 5.74 ± 0.52 − 9.94 < 0.001
Language 2.42 ± 0.61 2.80 ± 0.43 − 4.67 < 0.001
Abstraction 1.87 ± 0.37 2.00 ± 0.01 − 3.21 0.002
Delayed recall 2.84 ± 1.50 4.18 ± 1.06 − 6.72 < 0.001
Orientation 6.00 ± 0.01 5.99 ± 0.11 1.00 0.319
  No % No % χ2  
Total MoCA score
 Normal 41 48.2 78 91.8 38.35 < 0.001
 Impaired 44 51.8 7 8.2   
  1. Bold text indicates statistical significance, where P-value < 0.05