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Table 2 Comparisons between those with major dependence (BIS = 0–55) and moderate dependence (BIS = 60–90)

From: Clinical and radiological assessment of hemiplegic shoulder pain in stroke patients

Characteristic Dependence group Test of significance
Major (N = 49) Moderate (N = 25)
Categorical (nominal)    χ2 P value
Sex    4.652 0.031
 Female 29 (59.2%) 21 (84%)
 Male 20 (40.8%) 4 (16%)
Hemiplegic side    FET 0.012
 Right 11 (22.4%) 0 (0%)
 Left 38 (77.6%) 25 (100%)
Nature of stroke    6.181 0.013
 Ischemic 32 (65.3%) 23 (92%)
 Hemorrhagic 17 (34.7%) 2 (8%)
Sensory disturbance for light touch 24 (49%) 2 (8%) 12.198  < 0.001
Adhesive capsulitis 21 (42.9%) 0 (0%) FET  < 0.001
Supraspinatus calcification 11 (22.4%) 0 (0%) FET 0.012
Subacromial subdeltoid bursitis 11 (22.4%) 12 (48%) 5.045 0.025
Bicipital tendinitis 27 (55.1%) 6 (24%) 6.481 0.011
Shoulder subluxation 6 (12.2%) 4 (16%) FET 0.725
Shoulder joint effusion 22 (44.9%) 13 (52%) 0.335 0.563
Acromio-clavicular joint capsular hypertrophy 5 (10.2%) 1 (4%) FET 0.657
Rotator cuff disorders 10 (20.4%) 9 (36%) 2.109 0.146
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) 21 (42.9%) 1 (4%) 11.964 0.001
Presence of risk factors for stroke 49 (100%) 22 (88%) FET 0.035
 Diabetes 36 (73.5%) 17 (68%) 0.244 0.622
 Hypertension 33 (67.3%) 14 (56%) 0.920 0.338
 IHD 22 (44.9%) 7 (28%) 1.983 0.159
 AF 3 (6.1%) 3 (12%) FET 0.400
 Smoking 2 (4.1%) 1 (4%) FET 1.000
 Dyslipidemia 21 (42.9%) 9 (36%) 0.323 0.570
Ordinal/Quantitative    Z value P value
Age (years) 62 (59–66) 61 (59–65) − 1.303 0.192
Disease duration (months) 0.5 (0.5–2) 5 (4–6.5) − 5.221  < 0.001
Number of risk factors for stroke 2 (2–3) 2 (1–3) − 1.181 0.238
Muscle power score (0–5) 2 (0–3) 4 (4–4) − 6.697  < 0.001
Brunnström motor recovery (BMR) stage 2 (1–2) 4 (3–4) − 6.805  < 0.001
Ashworth Scale 1 (0–3) 1 (1–1) − 0.315 0.753
VAS scale 2 (2–3) 2 (2–3) − 0.043 0.965
  1. Bold indicates that p value ≤ 0.050
  2. Data are N (%) for categorical (nominal) variables, and median (25th–75th percentile) for ordinal and quantitative data. Test of significance is Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test (FET) for categorical (nominal) variables, and Mann–Whitney U-test for ordinal and quantitative data
  3. IHD ischemic heart disease, AF atrial fibrillation, VAS visual analog scale, CRS complex regional pain syndrome