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Table 1 Comparisons between those with and without shoulder pain

From: Clinical and radiological assessment of hemiplegic shoulder pain in stroke patients

Characteristic Without pain
N = 136
With pain
N = 74
Test of significance
Categorical (nominal) χ2 P value
Sex    5.530 0.019
 Female 69 (50.7%) 50 (67.6%)
 Male 67 (49.3%) 24 (32.4%)
Hemiplegic side    45.113  < 0.001
 Right 86 (63.2%) 11 (14.9%)
 Left 50 (36.8%) 63 (85.1%)
Nature of stroke    13.517  < 0.001
 Ischemic 126 (92.6%) 55 (74.3%)
 Hemorrhagic 10 (7.4%) 19 (25.7%)
Sensory disturbance for light touch 0 (0%) 26 (35.1%) FET  < 0.001
Adhesive capsulitis 1 (0.7%) 21 (28.4%) 39.047  < 0.001
Supraspinatus calcification 1 (0.7%) 11 (14.9%) FET  < 0.001
Sub-acromial sub-deltoid bursitis 0 (0%) 23 (31.1%) FET  < 0.001
Bicipital tendinitis 0 (0%) 33 (44.6%) FET  < 0.001
Shoulder subluxation 0 (0%) 10 (13.5%) FET  < 0.001
Shoulder joint effusion 0 (0%) 35 (47.3%) FET  < 0.001
Acromio-clavicular joint capsular hypertrophy 0 (0%) 6 (8.1%) FET 0.001
Rotator cuff disorders 0 (0%) 19 (25.7%) FET  < 0.001
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) 0 (0%) 22 (29.7%) FET  < 0.001
Presence of risk factors for stroke 129 (94.9%) 71 (95.9%) FET 1.000
 Diabetes 71 (52.2%) 53 (71.6%) 7.471 0.006
 Hypertension 82 (60.3%) 47 (63.5%) 0.210 0.647
 IHD 59 (43.4%) 29 (39.2%) 0.346 0.556
 AF 22 (16.2%) 6 (8.1%) 2.700 0.100
 Smoking 13 (9.6%) 3 (4.1%) 2.063 0.151
 Dyslipidemia 60 (44.1%) 30 (40.5%) 0.250 0.617
Ordinal/Quantitative    Z value P value
Age (years) 63 (60–67) 61.5 (59–66) − 1.855 0.064
Disease duration (months) 12 (3–18) 2 (0.5–6) − 7.5080  < 0.001
Barthel Index score (BIS) 57 (40–75) 40 (5–65) − 3.659  < 0.001
Number of risk factors for stroke 2 (1–3) 2 (2–3) − 0.287 0.774
Muscle power score (0–5) 3 (2–3) 3 (0–4) − 0.403 0.687
Brunnström motor recovery (BMR) stage 3 (2–4) 2 (2–3) − 2.567 0.010
ASHWORTH SCALE 1 (0–2) 1 (0–2) − 0.947 0.344
VAS scale 0 (0–0) 2 (2–3) − 14.081  < 0.001
  1. Bold indicates that p value ≤ 0.050
  2. Data are N (%) for categorical (nominal) variables, and median (25th–75th percentile) for ordinal and quantitative data. Test of significance is Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test (FET) for categorical (nominal) variables, and Mann–Whitney U-test for ordinal and quantitative data
  3. IHD ischemic heart disease, AF atrial fibrillation, VAS visual analog scale, CRS complex regional pain syndrome