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Table 4 Association between moderate, severe insomnia and patients’ characteristics

From: Sleep in post-COVID-19 recovery period and its impact on different domains of quality of life

Socio-demographic data Total
(n = 500)
Moderate and severe insomnia (n = 160) χ2
(p value)
OR (95%CI)
Age/ years     
Mean ± SD 36.98 ± 10.87    
  ≤ 36 y (r) 260 (52%) 69 (26.5%) 7.42 (0.006*) 1
1.7 (1.2–2.5)
  > 36 y 240 (48%) 91 (37.9%)
Gender     
 Male (r) 305 (61.0%) 97 (27.9%) 6.1 (0.013*) 1
1.6 (1.1–2.4)
 Female 195 (39.0%) 63 (38.5%)
Marital status     
 Married (r) 342 (68.4%) 99 (28.9%) 4.63 (0.031*) 1
1.5 (1.04–2.3)
 Single 158 (31.6%) 61 (38.6%)
Education     
 Primary (r) 101 (20.2%) 30 (29.7%) 1
 Secondary 213 (42.6%) 70 (32.9%)   1.2 (0.7–1.9)
 University 186 (37.2%) 60 (32.3%) 0.32 (0.85) 1.1 (0.6–1.9)
Occupation     
 Worker 302 (60.4%) 103 (34.1%) 1.55 (0.21) 1.28 (0.9–1.8)
 Non worker (r) 198 (39.6%) 57 (28.8%) 1
Residence     
 Urban (r) 303 (60.6%) 90 (29.7%) 1.86 (0.17) 1
 Rural 197 (39.4%) 70 (35.5%) 1.3 (0.8–1.9)
Smoking     
 Smokers (r) 299 (59.8%) 88 (29.4%) 2.26 (0.13) 1
 Non smokers 201 (40.2%) 72 (35.8%) 1.3 (0.9–2)
Days after recovery from COVID 19 13.04 ± 4.99    
 ≤ 12 days (r) 284 (56.8%) 0 (0%) 309 (≤ 0.001*) NA
 > 12 days 216 (43.2%) 160 (74.1%)
Physical functioning 60 (0–100)    
 ≤ 60 254 (50.8%) 93 (36.6%) 5.05
(0.025*)
1.5 (1.1–2.3.)
 > 60 (r) 246 (49.2%) 67 (27.2%) 1
Role limitation due to physical health 50 (0–100)    
 ≤ 50 312 (62.4%) 113 (36.2%) 6.78 (0.009*) 1.7 (1.1–2.5)
 > 50 (r) 188 (37.6%) 47 (25.0%) 1
Role limitation due to emotional problems 33.33 (0–100)    
 ≤ 33.33 322 (64.4%) 124 (38.5%) 17.61 (≤ 0.001*) 2.5 (1.6–3.8)
 > 33.33 (r) 178 (35.6%) 36 (20.2%) 1
Energy/ fatigue 10 (0–70)    
 ≤ 10 308 (61.6%) 93 (30.2%) 1.20 (0.27) 0.23 (0.8–1.8)
 > 10 (r) 192 (38.4%) 67 (34.9%) 1
Emotional well being 8 (0–56)    
 ≤ 8 293 (58.6%) 94 (32.1%) 0.002 (0.96) 1.01 (0.6–1.5)
 > 8 (r) 207 (41.4%) 66 (31.9%) 1
Social functioning 12.5 (0–100)    
 ≤ 12.5 268 (53.6%) 78 (29.1%) 2.23 (0.14) 1.3 (0.9–1.9)
 > 12.5 (r) 232 (46.4%) 82 (35.3%) 1
Pain 0 (0–100)    
 0 288 (57.6%) 85 (29.5%) 1.93 (0.17) 1.3 (0.9–1.9)
 > 0 (r) 212 (42.4%) 75 (35.4%) 1
General health 15 (0–90)    
 ≤ 15 285 (57.0%) 110 (38.6%) 13.25 (≤ 0.001*) 2.1 (1.4–3.1)
 > 15 (r) 215 (43.0%) 50 (23.3%) 1
Global PSQI Score 15.37 ± 4.43    
 ≤ 17 275 (55.0%) 155 (56.6%) 168.2 (≤ 0.001*) 57.6 (23–144)
 > 17 (r) 225 (45.0%) 5 (2.2%) 1
  1. Continuous variables were divided according to median value
  2. *Statistically significant results
  3. (r): reference group, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, PSQI Pittsburgh sleep quality index, SD standard deviation