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Table 1 Motor/non-motor symptoms

From: The impact of clinical scales in Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review

Symptom type Features
Motor symptoms  
 Bradykinesia [18] Affects up to 98% of Parkinson’s Patients
Motor planning amplitude disruptions are reduced
 Tremor [19] Approximately 75% of PD patients are affected by tremor
Includes rest tremor, action tremor, and mixed tremor
Trembling of one or both hands at rest is a symptom
Also affects the chin, lips, face, and legs
 Muscular rigidity [20] Muscle resistance during passive mobilization is unable to relax normally
Creates muscle pain
 Postural reflex and gait disturbance [21] People with PD can fall up to 40% of the time
About 10% of people can experience weekly falls
The number of drop-downs is related to the seriousness of PD
Shorter stride length, which can get shorter over time
Non-motor symptoms
 Autonomic dysfunction [22] Affects 70% to 80% of patients
Have a high level of morbidity and pain
Includes sexual problem, dysregulation of swallowing, gastrointestinal disorders, cardiac regulation problem, orthostatic hypotension, entrail, and bladder irregularities
 Sleep dysfunction [23] Affecting 64% of PD patients
Fatigue, REM sleep pattern disorder, muscle spasms, prolonged morning sleepiness, sleep disorder, and sleep fragmentation are all forms of sleep disturbances
Sleep dysfunctions are multi-factorial that includes nocturnal and diurnal symptoms
Sleep in PD is characterized by decreased sleep performance and an elevated number of awakenings
 Sensory dysfunction [24] Includes pain, olfactory disturbance, and visual dysfunction
 Neuropsychiatric [25] Includes depression, anxiety, apathy and psychosis
Despite the lower prevalence rates, roughly 30–40% of patients with PD experience severe depressive manifests