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Table 2 Published papers on the prevalence and associated risk factors from inception to March 2020

From: The epidemiology of common mental disorders in Libya: a systematic review

Author Aim Relevant Disorder Study design Settings Study population (sexes), age range (years) Outcome measures Key findings
[25] Present sociodemographic and diagnostic characteristics of psychiatric inpatients in Eastern Libya Neurotic depression based on ICD-9 classification Cross sectional Psychiatric hospital, Benghazi city 1009 psychiatric patients (both), ≥ 15 ICD-9 manual Prevalence: 58.6% (65/111) of patients with neurotic disorders developed neurotic depression
The key risk factors identified: young age, being single and doing military services
[26] Examining the adequacy and consistency of Beck Depression Inventory second edition in Arabic population Depression Cross sectional Sebha city 298 Undergraduate students, (both), 18–25 Beck Depression Inventory using an Arabic version of the BDI-II Mean (SD) = 22.7 (± 12.6)
The scale could be a successful rapid screening device for depression and especially useful in future epidemiological/ prevalence studies
[24] Assessing the relationship between depression and non-adherence to anticoagulant therapy after valve replacement Depression Cross sectional Annour Clinic,
Red Crescent,
Misurata city
62 cardiac patients (both), 38–60 CES-D and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Prevalence: 35.5% (22/62) with mean age (SD) = 51 (± 7.1)
[30] To assess depression and anxiety in children with some skin diseases Anxiety and depression Case–control Al Wahda hospital and Community Health Center, Derna city 100 children,
(both), 6–14
Standardized Arabic version of CDI and anxiety assessment using anxiety manifest scale for children Prevalence: Mean score (SD) of depression is 12.1 (± 4) in dermatology children, while it is 9.7 (± 3.3) in control group at P value < 0.05
Mean score (SD) of anxiety is 19.9 (± 6.4) in dermatology children, while it is 13.2 (± 5.6) in control ones at (P < 0.05)
The key risk factors identified: dermatological conditions such as acne (that are associated with cosmetic impact) increase vulnerability to develop depressive disease. Female gender:
[31] Investigating the differences between high academic achievement and of low academic achievement students in the variables of intelligence and exam anxiety Anxiety Cross sectional Zawia city 302 Undergraduate students, (both), ≥ 15 Arabic version of STAI The was no general conclusion that was drawn from this study
[27] To assess the physical, mental, emotional and social health status of adolescents and youths attending university and to determine variables associated with their health status Anxiety and depression Cross sectional Benghazi city 383 Undergraduate students, (both), 17–24 EQ-5D questionnaire Prevalence: 62.7% (240/282)
Males: 51.3% (79/154) and females: 70.3% (161/229)
The key risk factors identified: Smoking and low levels of physical activity, especially among women
[28] To assess the frequencies of self-reported students’ symptoms and two stressors (educational related and general overall)
To examine the associations between certain health complaints and students’ socio-demographics and health behaviours/lifestyle features
Anxiety and depression Cross sectional Cross Libya (Misurata, Sabha, Zawea, Sirt, Al Bida, Benghazi and Tripoli cities) 1567 Undergraduate students, (both), ≥ 15 General student health survey Prevalence: 749/1300 (57.6%) depressive mood, 738/1300 (56.85%) difficulties to concentrate
The key risk factors identified: female gender, academic performance, income insufficiency
[33] To investigate the association of mental well‑being and depression with periodontal clinical attachment loss among young adults in post-war urban population Anxiety and depression Cross sectional Sebha city Random 147 participants (both), 15–35 Arabic version of WHO five well‑being index and major depression inventory Prevalence: 40.81% had poor mental well‑being
The key risk factors identified: depression is more common in female (73.3%) but its severity is more linked with male gender
[34] To determine the degree of anaemia among pregnant women and to assess the depression, anxiety and stress among the anaemia in pregnancy women Anxiety and depression Cross sectional Sebha city 258 pregnant women, no exact data DASS 21 Prevalence: depression 43.4% (112/258), anxiety 25% (65/258) and stress 31.4% (81/258)
[23] Not stated clearly (compared the rates of preterm, low-birthweight and caesarean-section births in ware-zone area) Anxiety (psychosocial stress) Cross sectional Al-Jamhouria hospital, Benghazi city 13,031 pregnant women, (mean age of mothers delivering in the conflict period was 30.1
years, whereas the average pre-conflict age was 30.4
[29] To determine the rates of anxiety and depression among higher education students in Libya so basic data can be provided to the university health program for planning related to the health need for students Anxiety and depression Cross sectional Cross Libya Random 1300 undergraduate students, (both), 17–34 Self-rated health questionnaire derived from the ACHA (2005)
“Within the last school year, have you been diagnosed with anxiety?”
“Within the last school year, have you been diagnosed with depression?”
Prevalence: anxiety was 8.8% (114/ 1300) and depression was 4.3%. (56/1300)
Key risk factors identified: insufficient social support and female gender
[22] To investigate the effect of social evaluation on Public Speaking Anxiety of English foreign language learners Anxiety (Public Speaking Anxiety) Cross sectional Omar Al-Mukhtar university, Al Bayda city Random 111 undergraduate students, (both), ≥ 15 Self-designed questionnaire asking student how they felt NA
[32] To cross-culturally adapt the PASS-20 questionnaire for use in Libya Anxiety Cross sectional Ibn Sina hospital, Sirt city 208 (patients and unpaid undergraduate
Students), (both) (42 women)
Arabic PASS-20 and the Arabic Pain Rating Scales NA
[36] To investigate whether Libyan primary and secondary schoolteachers experience depression, anxiety and stress manifestation throughout job programmers Anxiety and depression Cross sectional Tripoli city 200 primary and secondary school teachers, (both), 22–65 Arabic version of DASS-21 Prevalence: depression: 44.5% (89/200), anxiety 56% (112/200) and stress: 39.5% (79/200)
The key risk factors identified: career as teacher (DAS), low teaching experience (DAS), smoking (anxiety), high workload demand (DAS)
[35] To examine the effects of psychoeducation and stress management techniques on PTSD symptoms in Libya Anxiety (PTSD) Cross sectional Tripoli city 41 volunteers, (both), 19–51 PTSD Checklist (PCL) which correspond to the DSM-5 criteria B, C, and D, respectively (A cut off point of 35 to 50 is PTSD diagnosis)
Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) developed by Endler and Parker (1990)
Prevalence: 15% met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD
  1. Adapted from Mirza and colleagues [18]
  2. ICD-9 International Classification of Diseases Ninth revision, BDI-II Beck Depression Inventory 1–2, CES-D Centre of Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, CDI Children Depression Inventory, EQ-5D EuroQoL, STAI Spielberger State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, WHO World Health Organization, DASS 21 Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale—21 Items, ACHA American College Health Association Survey, PASS-20 Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20, PTSD Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Standard Deviation (SD)