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Table 5 Regression analysis of factors associated with increase the risk of MS relapse

From: Outcomes of pregnancy in Egyptian women with multiple sclerosis in the new treatment era: a multi-center retrospective observational study

  Hazard ratio (95% CI)a p Value*
No breastfeeding 1.0 (ref)  
Exclusive breastfeedingb 0.31 (0.12–0.67) 0.002
Nonexclusive breastfeedingb 0.59 (0.31–1.16) 0.126
Pre-pregnancy relapsesc 2.21 (1.23–3.69) 0.005
Use of DMT before pregnancy by 1 year 1.46 (0.90–2.38) 0.130
Pregnancy relapse 3.09 (1.68–5.67)  < 0.001
Use of postpartum DMTd 1.41 (0.71–2.58) 0.340
Age, (years) 0.92 (0.89–0.99) 0.016
Disease duration, (years) 1.12 (0.96–1.23) 0.437
Disabilitye 2.08 (1.72–3.41) 0.002
  1. CI confidence interval; DMT disease-modifying therapy; MS multiple sclerosis
  2. aCox proportional hazards model/ *Level of significance is set when the P-value < 0.05
  3. bReference group no breastfeeding
  4. cReference group 0–1 relapse in 2 years before pregnancy
  5. dTime-dependent covariate
  6. eReference group no MS-related disability at pregnancy onset