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Table 6 Comparison of cognitive impairment with international studies

From: A comparison of cognitive performances between neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and multiple sclerosis patients in Indian context

Study name Country Sample size Aquaporin 4 positivity Main finding
Cho et al. 2018 [22] Korea 14 NMOSD vs. 21 HCs 13/14 -Patients perform significantly worse in attention/working memory, processing speed, executive function, and visuo-spatial processing
-CI in patients associated with local efficiency, regional efficiency, and nodal clustering coefficient of two disrupted subnetworks
Fujimori et al. 2017 [23] Japan 12 NMOSD vs 14 MS 12/12 -Impairment in perceptual organization, working memory, and processing speed
-Compared to MS less CI
Saji et al. 2013 [6] Japan 14 NMO vs 17 MS vs 37 HCs 14/14 -57% CI compared to HC significant cortical neuron density decrease in layers II, III, and IV
-Cognitive deficits in sustained attention, concentration, speed of information, processing, and verbal memory
Vanotti et al. 2013 [7] Argentine 14 NMOSD vs 17 MS vs 14 HCs NR -57% CI compared to HC dysfunctions in
verbal fluencies and attention
-Compared to MS similar pattern
of dysfunction
Moore et al. 2016 [24] UK 42 NMOSD vs 42 MS vs 42 HCs 30/42 -67% CI substantial cognitive andpsychiatric comorbidities in NMOSD
-Compared to MS greater psychological burden, but similar CI prevalence and profiles
Present study India 20 NMOSD vs 40 MS 18/20 -75% CI executive function, verbal fluency, information processing speed, visuo-constructional ability, attention, complex calculation, and memory involved.
-Compared to MS similar pattern of involvement.
-Compared to MS verbal fluency and visuo-perceptual ability was more impaired