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Table 1 Summary of published studies on predictors of parenting stress in parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (2009–2020)

From: Predictors of parenting stress in parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder: a scoping review

Authors/year/country Study aim Study design Description of study Predictors addressed Results
Merdan [18]
Turkey
Identified the correlation between parenting stress and children’s behavior problem Cross-sectional Sample: one hundred forty-two mothers of children with ASD
Instrument: Parent Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF)
Problem behaviors Problem behaviors of children predicted with a high level of parenting stress (p = 0.001)
Pozo and Sarriá [19]
Spain
Investigated the predictive association between behavioral problems and parenting stress Longitudinal study Sample: twenty-one mothers of children with ASD
Instrument:
Parent Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF)
Behavior symptoms A significant relationship between the high level of parenting stress and behavior problem (p =0.028)
Zheng et al. [20]
Australia
Examined stressors in mothers of preschool- and school-aged children with ASD Cross-sectional Sample: fifty-six mothers of children with ASD
Instrument: Parent Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF)
Problem behaviors, cognitive ability, communication, daily living skills; socialization and sensory processing Repetitive and problematic behaviors (p = 0.05), communication and daily living skills (p = 0.05), socialization and sensory sensitivities (p = 0.001) were correlated with a high level of parenting stress
Su et al. [21]
China
Examined the relationship between parenting stress and children’s core ASD symptoms Cross-sectional Sample: one hundred twenty-two mothers of children with ASD
Instrument: the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21)
Problem behaviors No significant correlation between parenting stress and child ASD characteristic (p = 0.161)
Zaidman-Zait et al. [11]
Canada
Identified the relations between child behavior problems and parenting stress Longitudinal study Sample: two hundred eighty-three mothers of children with ASD
Instrument: Parent Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF)
Behavior problems Longitudinal relationship between a high level of parenting stress and behavior problems (p<0.001)
Craig et al. [22]
Italy
Investigated the association of parenting stress with socio-demographic variable, behavioral and emotional problems Cross-sectional Sample: eighty-one parents of children with ASD (father n =39, mother n =42)
Instrument: Parent Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF)
Socio-demographic variable (e.g., parent age), behaviors, and emotional problems Older parents, age of mothers (p<0.001) and age of fathers (p=0.021), emotion, and behavior problems (p =0.001) are predictors of the high level of parenting stress
Harrop et al. [23]
USA
Examined the relationship between child behavior problems and parenting stress Longitudinal study Sample: one hundred ninety-three caregivers of children with ASD (biological n= 188, adoptive n = 3, maternal grandparent n = 2)
Instrument: Parent Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF)
Behavior problems Longitudinal relationship between behavior problems and a high level of parenting stress (p <0.001)
Batool and Khurshid [24]
Pakistan
Explored the relationship between parent stress and factors (e.g., social-communication, parent’s gender) Cross-sectional Sample: one hundred parents of children with ASD (father n = 50, mother n =50)
Instrument: Parenting Stress Scale (PSS)
Impairments of social-communication and gender of the parent Only socio-communication impairment predictor of a high level of parenting stress (p <0.001)
Brei et al. [25]
USA
Identified the association between parenting stress and autism-associated symptomatology (i.e., problem behaviors, and social-communication) Cross-sectional Sample: forty parents of children with ASD
Instrument: Parent Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF)
Problem behaviors and social-communication skills Behavioral problems were strongly linked to a high level of parenting stress (p < 0.001)
Giovagnoli et al. [26]
Italy
Investigated the role of several factors in parental stress, including the impairments of social-communication, behaviors, and emotional problems. Cross-sectional Sample: one hundred ninety parents of children with ASD (95 fathers, 95mothers)
Instrument: Parent Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF)
Socio-communication impairments, behaviors, and emotional problems The high level of parenting stress strongly associated with behavior and emotional problems (p <0.001)
Green and Carter [27]
USA
Investigated the relationship between daily living skills and parenting stress Longitudinal study Sample: one hundred sixty-one mothers of children with ASD
Instrument: Parent Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF)
Daily living skills A significant relationship between the high level of parenting stress and daily living skills (p = 0.05)
Huang et al. [28]
Taiwan
Examined the emotional and behavioral problems with parenting stress in parents of children ASD Cross-sectional Sample: fifty-two parents of children with ASD (father n = 8, mother n = 44)
Instrument: Parent Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF)
Emotional and behavioral problems Behavior problems significantly correlated with the high level of parenting stress (p < 0.001)
McStay et al. [29]
Dutch
Examined the association of child-related factors (i.e., age, impairments of social-communication, child QoL, and problem behavior) and parenting stress of children with ASD Cross-sectional Sample: one hundred fifty parents of children with ASD (42 fathers, 108 mothers)
Instrument: Parent Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF)
Child age, child quality of life (Qol), and behavior problems Behavior problems associated with a high level of parenting stress among parents of children with ASD (p= 0.05)
Rivard et al. [30]
Canada
Identified the association between ASD core symptoms and parenting stress Cross-sectional Sample: two hundred thirty-six parents of children with ASD (118 fathers and 118 mothers)
Instrument: Parent Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF)
Deficits of social-communication interaction and behavior problems The high level of parenting stress associated with the core ASD (p < 0.001)
Allen et al. [31]
Australia
Examined the association between parenting stress and ASD symptoms Cross-sectional Sample: one hundred twenty-four parents of children with ASD (23 fathers, 101 mothers)
Instrument: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)
ASD symptoms (social-communication interaction, behavior problems) All ASD symptoms are predictors with a high level of parenting stress (p =0.05)
Estes et al. [32]
USA
Examined child problem behavior, socio- communication skills, and daily living skills as predictors with parenting stress Cross-sectional Sample: forty-six mothers of children with ASD
Instrument: the Questionnaire on Resources and Stress (QRS)
Child behavior problems and deficits of social-communication interaction and daily living skills Only child behavior problems (p =0. 006) as a significant predictor with a high level of parenting stress
Firth and Dryer [33]
Australia
Identified what is characteristic of ASD as a predictor of parenting stress Cross-sectional Sample: one hundred nine parents of children with ASD
Instrument: the Parental Stress Scale (PSS)
Problem behaviors and socio-communication impairments Social impairments (p < 0. 001) and behavior problems were (p < 0. 001) observed as a predictor of a high level of parenting stress
Totsika et al. [34]
UK
Investigated the relationship between parenting stress and behavior problems Longitudinal study Sample: one hundred thirty-two mothers of children with ASD
Instrument: General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)
Behavior problems No significant relationship (p = 0.321)
Walsh et al. [35]
USA
Investigated various factors as predictors of parenting stress Cross-sectional Sample: one hundred forty-eight parents of children with ASD (father n = 14, mother n =132)
Instrument: Parenting Daily Hassles (PDH)
Problem behaviors Behavior problems were significantly related to a high level of parenting stress (p < 0.001)
Wang et al. [36]
China
Identified factors linked to parenting stress among mothers of children with ASD Cross-sectional Sample: one hundred fifty mothers of children with ASD
Instrument: Parent Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF)
Behavior problems Child’s behavior problems were correlated with a high level of parenting stress (p < 0.001)
Weiss et al. [37]
Canada
Explored the relations between child problem behavior and parenting stress Cross-sectional Sample: two hundred twenty-eight parents of children with ASD (16 fathers and 212 mothers)
Instrument: Psychological Distress Scale
Child problems behavior The significant correlation between problem behaviors and a high level of parenting stress (p <0.001)
Peters-Scheffer et al. [38]
Dutch
Examined factors predicting parenting stress Cross-sectional Sample: one hundred four mothers of children with ASD
Instrument: Parent Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF)
Deficits of social-communication and behavior problems No significant correlation of social-communication impairments (p =0.42), behavior problems (p =0.21), and parenting stress
Hall and Graff [39]
USA
Examined factors associated with parenting stress Cross-sectional Sample: seventy-five parents of children with ASD (father n =25, mother n = 50)
Instrument: Parent Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF)
Deficits of social-communication interaction and daily living skills A high level of parenting stress associated with impairments of social-communication interaction (p = 0.05) and daily living skills (p = 0.05)
Rezendes and Scarpa [40]
USA
Assessed parenting stress as related to behavior problems in children with ASD Cross-sectional Sample: one hundred forty mothers of children with ASD
Instrument: Depression Anxiety Stress Scale
Child behavior problems The high level of parenting stress among mothers of children with ASD associated with behavior problems (p <0.001)
Totsika et al. [41]
UK
Investigated the association of behavioral problems of children with ASD and parenting stress Cross-sectional Sample: forty-seven mothers of children with ASD
Instrument: maternal well-being
Child behavior problems A significant relationship between problem behaviors and the high level of parenting stress (p <0.001)
Osborne and Reed [42]
UK
Examined the relationship between characteristics of a child with ASD and parenting stress Cross-sectional Sample: one hundred thirty-seven parents of children with ASD
Instrument: Questionnaire on Resources and Stress (QRS-F)
Behavior problems, deficits of social-communication interaction and intellectual functioning A high level of parenting stress was strongly correlated with child’s behavior problems (p <0.001)
Phetrasuwan and Shandor Miles [43]
USA
Described the factors of parenting stress in mothers of children with ASD Descriptive-correlational Sample: one hundred eight mothers of children with ASD
Instrument: Parental Stressor Scale: Developmental Disabilities (PSS:DD)
Behavior symptoms Behavioral problems were predictors with a high level of parenting stress (p <0.001)