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Fig. 5 | The Egyptian Journal of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery

Fig. 5

From: Reflex memory theory of acquired involuntary motor and sensory disorders

Fig. 5

A process diagram showing stages of the reflex memory formation and points of intervention. As shown, a process diagram has presented the process of reflex memory formation to the left and also proposed interventions to the right. The pathogeneses of acquired excitatory sensory and motor disorders involve multiple molecular and structural mechanisms, and reflex memory only causes persistence of the disorders despite treatment. The proposed points of intervention start from the stage of excitoxicity where there is a need to reduce: excessive neuronal activities; glutamate release; oxidative stress; and calcium loading, and to enhance: glutamate metabolism; and mitochondria integrity. Therefore, use of Adenosine A1 receptor agonists and metabolic inhibitors, A(2A) receptor selective antagonists, antioxidants, potent and selective blockers of NMDA receptors, EAATs enhancers, and selective L-type CCBs are advocated in appropriate rations in the suggested combined treatment protocol of these disorders. At the point of memory formation, selective pharmacological memory blockers (for example, propranolol) and optogenetic manipulations are proposed. At the point that consolidation had occurred, retrieval can be prevented using selective pharmacological blockers and optogenetic manipulations. Retrieval phase follows consolidation phase, and at this point, the memory is fragile and unstable, and quite vulnerable so, the memory can be selectively erased using drugs and optogenetic procedures. Since by its very nature it does not reconsolidate, it remains so vulnerable to various manipulations. If the proposed therapies as explained above are applied, the expected outcome is a cure

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