Skip to main content

Table 6 Previous studies validating BICAMS

From: Reliability and validity of Arabic version of the brief international cognitive assessment for multiple sclerosis: Egyptian dialect

Study country Czech Republic19 Italy20,21 Brazil22 Brazil23* Lithuania24 Ireland25 Hungary26 Canada27 America28 Argentina29 Greece30# Belgium31 Turkey32 Portgal33 German34Ψ Japan35
No. PwMS 369 192 58 34 50 67 65 57 41 50 44 97 173 105 172 156
HC 134 273 58 - 20 66 65 51 32 100 79 97 153 60 100 126
Age of PwMS (year) Mean±SD 34±10 41.4±10.8 41.2±12.2 43.4±10.8 38.8±10.2 43.9±12.1 41.9±8.9 45.4±9.9 46.7±8.6 43.4± 10.2 40.2±9.9 45.4±9.2 37.5 ± 10.7 38.3±11 43.3±11.6 41.4±9.3
Years of education Mean±SD 14±3 12.3±3.5 12.7±5.2 15% ≤ 8
38% 8-11
29% 11–18
18% >18
15.9±2.8 13.6±2.7 48% ≤12
52% ≥ 13
15.44±2.7 15.2±2.2 14.9 ± 2.8 14.1±4.8 14.3±1.9 13.9 ± 7.3 13.6±3.7 - 14.1±1.9
Disease duration (year) Mean±SD/Median 8±7 12.7 ± 8.9 8.3±6.6 9.47±7.9 11.7±9.2 10.2± 8.4 11.1±7.6 10.1± 7.7 12.7±8.2 13.1±9.1 9.1±4.1 13± 7.2 9.2 ± 6.1 6.5 ±6 - 10.3±7.2
EDSS mean±SD 3±1.5 2.7±1.7 4.2±2 3.4±1.3 3.3±1.3 1.8±0.9 (RRMS)
5.7±1.4 (SPMS)
7 (PPMS)
2.5±1.8 2.7± 1.9 - 3.3 ±2.6 3.5 3.5±2.5 2.4 ± 1.7 1.5 - 2.4±2.0
SDMT HC Mean±SD 65± 9 56.3±11.3 47.5±13 56.3±10.3 57.7±11.5 55.9±10.9 66.8±12.4 59.1± 8.5 60.7±9.2 56.7± 10.9 61.4±13.1 61±10.2 53.5± 9.5 58.7 ±10 56.1±11.6 61.0±9.5
PwMS Mean±SD 50±13 46.4±12.8 35.9±16.1 48.5±14.9 42.7±13.9 46 ±12.9 55.6±15.5 49.7± 10.8 51.7±11.7 45.1±16.1 45.0±17.2 52.1±13.1 43.2 ± 12.5 51.8±11.2 47.4± 11.7
(BL)
47.9±14
% with impairment 42 19 in all tests - 67 - - - 28.1 - - 43 - 41 14.3 19.2 -
CVLT HC Mean±SD 60±8 56.3± 9   58.4±8.3 65.7±5.9 52.8± 8.8 59± 8.3 57.7± 7.9 60.8±9 60.9± 10.5 60.5±10.7 61.3±9.7 53.9 ± 7.7 60.5±10 55.2± 10.3 55.7±10.5
PwMS mean±SD 52±11 49.9±12.1 42.1 ± 12.4 48.2±8.6 55.9±10 45.3±10.2 55.4 ± 10.7 51.6± 10.1 53.6±10.9 50.9±12.4 55.5±12.3 60.1±12.9 45.7±11.3 55.1± 11.9 55.4±11.4
(VLMT)
(BL)
48.6±12.6
% with impairment 22 19 in all tests - 73 - 40 - 26.3 - - 20 - 38.2 9.5 8.1(on VLMT) -
BVRT HC mean±SD 29±4 27.9±6.1 23.8 ± 7.7 26.2±8.3 29.6±4.1 20.7± 6.6 26.7 ±5.6 29.8±3.6 25.7±6.3 23.4± 5.8 22.1±6.5 25.4±7.3 22.5±9.2 24.7 ± 5.5 27.4±6 28.3±5.4
PwMS mean±SD 23±7 23.7±8 19.9 ± 8.6 23.5±6.7 23.1±7 17.9 ±7.1 22.54± 8.5 24.6±6.5 21.3±7 20.7±7.7 18.5±8.3 28.2±5.1 16.9 ± 8.5 21.7± 7.3 24.4±7.6
(BL)
23.5±8.4
% with impairment 41 19 in all tests - 58 - 10 - 43.9 - - 22   33.5 11.4 26.5 -
  1. *Used 1SD of the mean for cutoff and means of HCs were norms from previous studies
  2. #Instead of the CVLT-II, the Greek Adaptation Greek Verbal Learning Test (GVLT) was used
  3. ΨInstead of CVLT-II, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) German version: Verbaler Lern- und Merkfähigkeits-Test, (VLMT) was chosen as verbal short-term memory and learning test.
  4. No. number, HC healthy controls, PwMS Patients with Multiple Sclerosis, EDSS Expanded Disability Status Scale, SDMT Symbol Digit Modality Test, CVLT California Verbal Learning Test, BVRT Brief Visuospatial Retention Test, BL baseline
  5. RRMS relapsing remitting, MS SPMS secondary progressive, MS PPMS primary progressive MS