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Table 5 Correlations between heart rate changes and seizure semiology, lateralization, and ictal onset zone

From: Frequency of peri-ictal apnea and cardiac arrhythmias in epileptic seizures

  Arrhythmia Chi-Square
Tachycardia Bradycardia
N % N % χ2 P value
Type of seizure semiology
FOIA motor onset with automatism 9 28.13 3 100.00 45.688 <0.001*
FOIA nonmotor onset 6 18.75 0 0.00
FOIA motor onset hyperkinetic or FOA motor onset tonic or cloni 4 12.50 0 0.00
FBTCS 7 21.88 0 0.00
Absence 0 0.00 0 0.00
GTCs 2 6.25 0 0.00
Non convulsive seizure 4 12.50 0 0.00
Ictal onset zone
Frontal 6 18.75 0 0.00 64.630 <0.001*
Temporal 24 75.00 3 100.00
Parietal 0 0.00 0 0.00
Generalized 2 6.25 0 0.00
Seizure lateralization
Left 17 53.13 0 0.00 26.049 <0.001*
Right 13 40.63 3 100.00
Generalized 2 6.25 0 0.00
  1. FBTCS focal onset to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures, FOA focal onset aware, FOIA focal onset with impaired awareness, GTCs generalized onset tonic-clonic seizures, χ2 chi-square value
  2. *Statistically significant