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Table 3 Frequency of headache subtypes between male and female

From: Characteristics of headache disorders, according to ICHD-III in an outpatient headache clinic in Sohag Governorate, Egypt

Headache subtypes Total Males (N = 131) Females (N = 369) Male:female ratio P value
Primary 445 110 (84%) 335 (90.8%) 1:3  
Migraine 253 75 178 3:7 0.1
 Migraine without aura 150 38 (29.0%) 112 (30.4%)   
  Chronic migraine 50 18 (13.7%) 32 (8.7%)   
  Probable migraine without aura 18 4 (3.1%) 14 (3.8%)   
  Migraine with visual aura 15 4 (3.1%) 11 (3.0%)   
  Migraine with sensory aura 13 7 (5.3%) 6 (1.6%)   
 Probable migraine with aura 4 3 (2.3%) 1 (0.3%)   
  Migraine with brainstem aura 3 1 (0.8%) 2 (0.5%)   
 Episodic migraine 203 (40.6) 57 (43.5) 146 (39.5)   0.3
 Chronic migraine 50 (10) 18 (13.7) 32 (8.6)   
Tension-type headache 168 26 (19.8%) 142 (42.3%) 1:5 0.004
 Frequent episodic TTH associated with PT 72 12 (9.2%) 60 (16.3%)   
 Frequent episodic TTH not associated with PT 60 8 (6.1%) 52 (14.1%)   
 Chronic TTH associated with PT 20 4 (3.1%) 16 (4.3%)   
 Chronic TTH not associated with PT 8 0 (0.0%) 8 (2.2%)   
 Probable frequent TTH 6 0 (0.0%) 6 (1.6%)   
 Probable chronic TTH 2 2 (1.5%) 0 (0.0%)   
Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TAC) 11 4(3%) 7(2%)   
 Episodic cluster headache 4 2 (1.5%) 2 (0.5%)   
 Episodic paroxysmal hemicrania 3 2 (1.5%) 1 (0.3%)   
 Probable paroxysmal hemicrania 3 0 (0.0%) 3 (0.8%)   
 Episodic SUNCT 1 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.3%)   
Other primary headache disorders 13 5(3.8%) 8(2.3 %)   
 Primary headache associated with sexual activity 5 1 (0.8%) 4 (1.1%)   
 New daily persistent headache (NDPH) 3 1 (0.8%) 2 (0.5%)   
 Primary stabbing headache 2 1 (0.8%) 1 (0.3%)   
 Probable primary exercise headache 1 1 (0.8%) 0 (0.0%)   
 Primary thunderclap headache 1 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.3%)   
 Hypnic headache 1 1 (0.8%) 0 (0.0%)   
Secondary headache 51 19 (14.5%) 32(8.7%) 3:5  
 Medication overuse headache (MOH) 14 7 (5.3%) 7 (1.9%)   
 Headache attributed to acute rhinosinusitis 7 0 (0.0%) 7 (1.9%)   
 Persistent headache attributed to mild head injury 5 3 (2.3%) 2 (0.5%)   
 Acute headache attributed to systemic viral infection 5 0 (0.0%) 5 (1.4%)   
 Headache attributed to hypertensive encephalopathy 4 0 (0.0%) 4 (1.1%)   
 Headache attributed to ischemic stroke 3 2 (1.5%) 1 (0.3%)   
 Headache attributed to intracranial neoplasia 2 2 (1.5%) 0 (0.0%)   
 Headache attributed to IIH 2 0 (0.0%) 2 (0.5%)   
 Sleep apnea headache 1 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.3%)   
 Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor induced headache 1 1 (0.8%) 0 (0.0%)   
 Persistent headache attributed to moderate to severe traumatic injury to the head 1 1(0.8) 0(0)   
 Headache attributed to TIA 1 1 (0.8%) 0 (0.0%)   
 Headache attributed to non-traumatic acute ASDH 1 1 (0.8%) 0 (0.0%)   
 Headache attributed to hypothyroidism 1 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.3%)   
 Headache attributed to GCA 1 1 (0.8%) 0 (0.0%)   
 Headache attributed to CVT 1 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.3%)   
 Headache attributed to acute glaucoma 1 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.3%)   
Painful cranial neuropathy 4 2 (1.5%) 2 (0.5 %) 1:1  
 Classical TN purely paroxysmal 4 2 (1.5%) 2 (0.5%)   
Headache course 500 131 369 1:3  
 Episodic headache 381(76.2%) 91 (69.5%) 290 (78.6%)   
 Chronic headache 119(23.8%) 40 (30.5%) 79 (21.4%)   0.035
Overlap of headache disorders      0.06
 Migraine and TTH 23 2 (1.5) 21 (5.7)   
 Chronic migraine and MOH 64 25 (5) 39 (7.8)   
 Chronic TTH and MOH 44 13 (2.6) 31 (6.2)   
 Posttraumatic migraine   2 (1.5) 0 (0)   
 Migraine and headache due to sexual activity 1 0 (0) 1 (0.2)   
  1. ASDH acute subdural hematoma, CVT cerebral venous thrombosis, GCA giant cell arteritis’, IIH idiopathic intracranial hypertension, MOH medication overuse headache, PT pericranial tenderness, SUNCT short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing, TIA transient ischemic attack, TN trigeminal neuralgia, TTH tension-type headache