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Table 1 Demographic, clinical, and spectroscopic data of the studied groups

From: Value of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in geriatric patients with cognitive impairment

  I
No. 20
II
No. 23
III
No. 15
IV
No.15
P value
Age in years 0.074
Mean ± SD 67.5 ± 4.3 64.9 ± 3.1 64.3 ± 3.7 64.4 ± 3.2
Male No. 9 13 7 9 0.233
% 45 56.5 46.7 60
Female No. 11 10 8 6
% 55 43.5 53.3 40
Hippo NAA I vs II
P = 0.000
I vs IV
P = 0.000
II vs III
P = 0.000
III vs IV
P = 0.000
 
Mean ± SD 6.7 ± 1 10.6 ± 0.5 7.5 ± 1.5 10.9 ± 0.8
Hippo Cr.  
Mean ± SD 5.1 ± 0.4 4.9 ± 0.2 4.8 ± 0.2 4.9 ± 0.2
Hippo NAA/Cr I vs II
P = 0.000
I vs IV
P = 0.000
II vs III
P = 0.000
III vs IV
P = 0.000
 
Mean ± SD 1.3 ± 0.2 2.1 ± 0.1 1.5 ± 0.2 2.2 ± 0.1
Frontal NAA I vs III
P = 0.000
I vs IV
P = 0.000
II vs IV
P = 0.000
III vs IV
P = 0.011
 
Mean ± SD 7.7 ± 1.4 8.4 ± 1.6 9.7 ± 1.3 11.4 ± 0.6
Frontal Cr.  
Mean ± SD 4.9 ± 0.2 5.1 ± 0.4 4.9 ± 0.2 4.8 ± 0.2
Frontal NAA/Cr I vs III
P = 0.000
I vs IV
P = 0.000
II vs III
P = 0.002
II vs IV
P = 0.000
III vs IV
P = 0.002
Mean ± SD 1.6 ± 0.3 1.7 ± 0.3 1.9 ± 0.3 2.4 ± 0.2
GDS I vs II
P = 0.000
II vs III
P = 0.000
II vs IV
P = 0.000
  
Mean ± SD 3.1 ± 1.4 10.3 ± 2.5 2.1 ± 1 1.7 ± 0.7
MoCA I vs II
P = 0.000
I vs III
P = 0.000
I vs IV
P = 0.000
II vs IV
P = 0.000
III vs IV
P = 0.000
Mean ±SD 8.6 ± 4.6 20.3 ± 2 22.7 ± 2.4 27.9 ± 1
  1. I = Alzheimer’s disease, II = Cognitive impairment associated with depression, III = Mild cognitive impairment, IV = Control subjects
  2. Hippo Hippocampus, NAA: N-acetylaspartate, Cr.: Creatine, NAA/Cr: N-acetylaspartate /creatine ratio, GDS: The Geriatric Depression Scale, MoCA: Montreal Cognitive Assessment Arabic version
  3. Significance level is set at P < 0.05