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Table 1 Demographic, socioeconomic, medical, and psychiatric risk factors in stroke patients and control subjects

From: Post-stroke depression: frequency, risk factors, and impact on quality of life among 103 stroke patients—hospital-based study

Characteristic Stroke patients, number = 103 Control, number = 50 P value
Sex    0.650
 Male 62 (60.2) 32 (64)  
 Female 41 (39.8) 18 (36)  
Age in years    
 Mean ± SD (years) 61.2 ± 14.7 59 ± 13.3 0.861
Residence    0.281
 Urban 40 (38.8) 24 (48)  
 Rural 63 (61.2) 26 (52)  
Marital status    0.046
 Single 9 (8.7) 7 (14)  
 Married 69 (67) 39 (78)  
 Divorced/widowed 25 (24.3) 4 (8)  
Education    0.380
 Literate 77 (74.8) 34 (68)  
 Illiterate 26 (25.2) 16 (32)  
Socioeconomic status (SES)    0.538
 Low 38 (36.9) 23 (46)  
 Middle 59 (57.3) 25 (50)  
 High 6 (5.8) 2 (4)  
Employment (occupation)    0.336
 Employed 39 (37.9) 23 (46)  
 Unemployed 64 (62.1) 27 (54)  
Special habits (in males)    0.570
 Smoker males 33/62 (53.2%) 19/32 (59.4)  
 Non-smoker males 29/62 (46.8%) 13/32 (40.6)  
Diabetes    0.022
 Yes 24 (23.3) 4 (8)  
 No 79 (76.7) 46 (92)  
Hypertension    0.021
 Yes 29 (28.2) 7 (14)  
 No 74 (71.8) 43 (86)  
Cardiac    0.071
 Yes 17 (16.5) 3 (6)  
 No 86 (83.5) 47 (94)  
Past psychiatric history of depression 19 (18.4) 5 (10) 0.098
Family history of depression in first-degree relatives 10 (9.7) 4 (8) 0.964
Depressed 38 (36.9) 6 (12%) 0.001
Non-depressed 65 (63.1) 44 (88)
Major depressive disorder 22 (21.4) 4 (8) 0.039
Minor depression 16 (15.5) 2 (4) 0.039