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Fig. 4 | The Egyptian Journal of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery

Fig. 4

From: Cinnarizine- and flunarizine-associated movement disorder: a literature review

Fig. 4

Graphic showing the number of clinical reports of cinnarizine and flunarizine from 1980 to 2019. The numbers represent important markers of the history of the CNZ/FNZ-induced parkinsonism. (1) De Melo-Souza, a Brazilian neurologist, described the first to report FNZ-induced PKN. (2) Chouza and colleagues published the first report of FNZ-induced PKN. (3) Gimenez-Roldan and colleagues reported that essential tremor and older age were possible risk factors for CNZ-induced PKN. (4) Negrotti and Calzetti studied individuals with FNZ-induced PKN who had been followed for 7 years showing a bad prognosis. (5) Marti-Masso and Poza studied individuals with FNZ-induced PKN who had been followed for 10 years showing a relatively good prognosis. (6) Vazquez-Alen and colleagues showed a large decrease in drug-induced PKN; they hypothesized it was because of the reduction of CNZ/FNZ prescription. (7) Teive and colleagues called the FNZ and CNZ-induced PKN as De Melo e Souza’s syndrome. (8) Population-based studies using Taiwan and Korean databases

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