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Table 2 Prevalence of psychosomatic symptoms in diabetic patients and controls

From: Psychosomatic complaints profile in patients with type 2 diabetes: a matched case-control study

Psychosomatic symptomsControls (n = 259)Diabetic patients without psychological problems (n = 52)P valueDiabetic patients with psychological problems (n = 35)P value
SometimesOften/alwaysSometimesOften/alwaysSometimesOften/always
Sleep disorder67 (27.9)43 (17.9)12 (27.3)3 (6.8)0.06419 (54.3)9 (25.7)0.003
Pounding heart88 (35.1)18 (7.2)13 (26.0)3 (6.0)0.2416 (45.7)7 (20.0)0.002
Feeling low on energy112 (45.5)43 (17.5)27 (57.4)3 (6.4)0.3517 (48.6)17 (48.6)< 0.0001
Feeling like “butterflies” in the stomach57 (23.4)7 (2.9)10 (21.3)0 (0.0)0.3315 (44.1)7 (20.6)< 0.0001
Difficulty concentrating64 (26.1)13 (5.3)9 (18.8)0 (0.0)0.04218 (51.4)7 (20.0)< 0.0001
Disturbing thoughts90 (36.7)26 (10.6)19 (40.4)2 (4.3)0.3912 (34.3)16 (45.7)< 0.0001
Dry mouth*85 (33.9)4 (1.6)24 (48.0)10 (20.0)< 0.000115 (45.5)9 (27.3)< 0.0001
Chest pain80 (32.5)11 (4.5)16 (32.0)2 (4.0)0.8718 (52.9)4 (11.8)0.001
Feeling of fullness82 (32.4)18 (7.1)19 (38.0)0 (0.0)0.3612 (34.3)6 (17.1)0.06
Nausea24 (9.7)4 (1.6)4 (8.0)0 (0.0)0.96 (17.1)1 (2.9)0.24
Gastroesophageal reflux49 (20.2)2 (0.8)14 (26.9)0 (0.0)0.566 (17.6)2 (5.9)0.12
Pain or discomfort in the abdomen84 (34.1)12 (4.9)19 (38.8)2 (4.1)0.7415 (42.9)4 (11.4)0.045
Constipation98 (38.6)23 (9.1)22 (44.0)3 (6.0)0.9514 (40.0)6 (17.1)0.14
Diarrhea72 (28.8)5 (2.0)19 (38.0)0 (0.0)0.3811 (33.3)0 (0.0)0.83
Bloating or swelling of the abdomen103 (42.2)33 (13.5)15 (30.0)4 (8.0)0.03117 (50.0)6 (17.6)0.21
Anal pain45 (18.9)3 (1.3)8 (17.4)2 (4.3)0.338 (22.9)1 (2.9)0.45
Headache137 (54.6)38 (15.1)29 (60.4)3 (6.3)0.2419 (57.6)6 (18.2)0.46
Back pain112 (45.2)47 (19.0)22 (44.0)11 (22.0)0.6614 (42.4)10 (30.3)0.14
Pain in the joints115 (45.6)44 (17.5)28 (56.0)6 (12.0)0.5917 (48.6)12 (34.3)0.005
Eyesore89 (35.0)18 (7.1)18 (36.0)5 (10.0)0.487 (20.6)11 (32.4)0.003
Severe fatigue138 (54.8)66 (26.2)29 (59.2)10 (20.4)0.4916 (45.7)19 (54.3)< 0.0001
Dizziness and confusion80 (31.9)17 (6.8)19 (38.8)0 (0.0)0.4813 (37.1)6 (17.1)0.025
Chills and extreme cold54 (21.3)3 (1.2)6 (12.2)1 (2.0)0.2513 (39.4)1 (3.0)0.033
Hot flashes66 (26.5)16 (6.4)17 (34.7)2 (4.1)0.7111 (32.4)9 (26.5)< 0.0001
Neck pain54 (21.4)7 (2.8)14 (28.0)0 (0.0)0.8912 (36.4)1 (3.0)0.103
Globus sensation36 (14.3)4 (1.6)7 (14.0)1 (2.0)> 0.99912 (35.3)0 (0.0)0.014
Having trouble swallowing17 (6.7)1 (0.4)2 (4.1)0 (0.0)0.794 (11.8)0 (0.0)0.37
Shortness of breath79 (32.0)13 (5.3)19 (38.0)1 (2.0)0.9513 (39.4)5 (15.2)0.017
Hoarseness39 (15.7)5 (2.0)7 (14.3)1 (2.0)0.846 (17.6)1 (2.9)0.65
Wheezing (asthma)18 (7.2)10 (4.0)3 (6.0)4 (8.0)0.439 (26.5)1 (2.9)0.004
  1. Values are number (%). P value from Pearson χ2
  2. *The rating scale was as never, low, and high